Shiraz E-Medical Journal Shiraz E-Medical Journal Shiraz E-Med J http://www.emedicalj.portal.tools 1735-1391 10.5812/semj. en jalali 2019 4 26 gregorian 2019 4 26 18 1
en 10.17795/semj44715 Improving Aggression Regulation in Highly Gifted Underachievers: An Evaluation Study Based on a Mixed Methods Design Improving Aggression Regulation in Highly Gifted Underachievers: An Evaluation Study Based on a Mixed Methods Design research-article research-article Conclusions

The outcome of the study stresses the opportunity to offer music psychotherapy to highly gifted underachievers as a means of tertiary prevention.

Discussion

The observed changes are discussed at the light of structural psychopathology. As to the chosen research methodology, a person-centred approach, combined with a quasi-experimental design, is liable to meet Wampold’s conclusions on psychotherapy research.

Results

The changes induced in the two clinical subgroups on emotional and conduct variables point to a better integration and elaboration of aggressive drives leading to an increase in creativity and intrinsic motivation. There were also positive changes in school results. On variables linked to aggressivity, the control group partially evolved in an opposite direction.

Background

Gifted adolescents suffering from severe intellectual inhibition may generally not be helped by pedagogical means alone. This special blockade results from a deep disturbance of the affective and pulsional functioning and can be treated by music psychotherapy in individual sessions, combined with psycho-pedagogical applications of music therapy in group sessions.

Methods

The integrated treatment programme was evaluated by means of a prospective longitudinal study, using a mixed research methodology that combined a psychometric scale, a projective test, and an observational frame for the music therapeutic sessions. Two clinical subgroups of students treated by the above described psychotherapeutic approach (N = 20 + 23) were compared with a control group (N = 43) of students who received only traditional pedagogical measures.

Conclusions

The outcome of the study stresses the opportunity to offer music psychotherapy to highly gifted underachievers as a means of tertiary prevention.

Discussion

The observed changes are discussed at the light of structural psychopathology. As to the chosen research methodology, a person-centred approach, combined with a quasi-experimental design, is liable to meet Wampold’s conclusions on psychotherapy research.

Results

The changes induced in the two clinical subgroups on emotional and conduct variables point to a better integration and elaboration of aggressive drives leading to an increase in creativity and intrinsic motivation. There were also positive changes in school results. On variables linked to aggressivity, the control group partially evolved in an opposite direction.

Background

Gifted adolescents suffering from severe intellectual inhibition may generally not be helped by pedagogical means alone. This special blockade results from a deep disturbance of the affective and pulsional functioning and can be treated by music psychotherapy in individual sessions, combined with psycho-pedagogical applications of music therapy in group sessions.

Methods

The integrated treatment programme was evaluated by means of a prospective longitudinal study, using a mixed research methodology that combined a psychometric scale, a projective test, and an observational frame for the music therapeutic sessions. Two clinical subgroups of students treated by the above described psychotherapeutic approach (N = 20 + 23) were compared with a control group (N = 43) of students who received only traditional pedagogical measures.

High Ability;Inhibition;Music Psychotherapy;Quasi Experimental Design;Underachievement High Ability;Inhibition;Music Psychotherapy;Quasi Experimental Design;Underachievement http://www.emedicalj.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=44715 Lony Schiltz Lony Schiltz Research Unit in Clinical Psychology (PCSA), Hospital Kirchberg, Luxembourg; Laboratoire De Psychologie Clinique, Hopital Kirchberg, 9, Rue Edward Steichen L-2540 Luxembourg. Tel: +352-433668 Research Unit in Clinical Psychology (PCSA), Hospital Kirchberg, Luxembourg; Laboratoire De Psychologie Clinique, Hopital Kirchberg, 9, Rue Edward Steichen L-2540 Luxembourg. Tel: +352-433668
en 10.17795/semj41483 The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Factors and Food Security in Pregnant Women The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Factors and Food Security in Pregnant Women research-article research-article Background

Food security is among the phenomena that have influenced the worldwide policy- making in the recent years. Furthermore, recent studies have reported extensive food insecurity in Iran.

Objectives

The present study aimed at defining the levels of food security and investigating its correlation with socioeconomic factors among pregnant women in city of Rasht (Iran) in 2014.

Methods

The present cross sectional study included 420 pregnant women in their 14 to 42 weeks of pregnancy. The sampling method was convenience, and the data were collected using demographic-obstetrics, socioeconomic factors, and food security status questionnaires through face-to-face interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.

Results

The results revealed that 30.9% of the pregnant women had food insecurity (19.6% had food insecurity without hunger, 8.9% had moderate hunger, and 2.4% had severe hunger), while 69.1% had complete food security. Food security was significantly correlated with socioeconomic status of the family, residence area, husband’s occupation, number of employed family members, monthly income, and monthly food cost (P value < 0.001). The results of the logistic regression analysis revealed that husband’s occupation (OR = 1.28), economic status (OR = 1.53), and residence area (OR = 1.43) had increasing effects on food insecurity.

Conclusions

Considering the high prevalence of food insecurity among pregnant women and its adverse impact on the mother and the fetus, it seems necessary to investigate the level of food security in women during prenatal care and to support pregnant women with food insecurity in particular.

Background

Food security is among the phenomena that have influenced the worldwide policy- making in the recent years. Furthermore, recent studies have reported extensive food insecurity in Iran.

Objectives

The present study aimed at defining the levels of food security and investigating its correlation with socioeconomic factors among pregnant women in city of Rasht (Iran) in 2014.

Methods

The present cross sectional study included 420 pregnant women in their 14 to 42 weeks of pregnancy. The sampling method was convenience, and the data were collected using demographic-obstetrics, socioeconomic factors, and food security status questionnaires through face-to-face interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.

Results

The results revealed that 30.9% of the pregnant women had food insecurity (19.6% had food insecurity without hunger, 8.9% had moderate hunger, and 2.4% had severe hunger), while 69.1% had complete food security. Food security was significantly correlated with socioeconomic status of the family, residence area, husband’s occupation, number of employed family members, monthly income, and monthly food cost (P value < 0.001). The results of the logistic regression analysis revealed that husband’s occupation (OR = 1.28), economic status (OR = 1.53), and residence area (OR = 1.43) had increasing effects on food insecurity.

Conclusions

Considering the high prevalence of food insecurity among pregnant women and its adverse impact on the mother and the fetus, it seems necessary to investigate the level of food security in women during prenatal care and to support pregnant women with food insecurity in particular.

Food Security;Socioeconomic Factors;Pregnant Women Food Security;Socioeconomic Factors;Pregnant Women http://www.emedicalj.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=41483 Leila Yadegari Leila Yadegari Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahrokh Dolatian Mahrokh Dolatian Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-2188202517, Fax: +98-2188202517 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-2188202517, Fax: +98-2188202517 Zohreh Mahmoodi Zohreh Mahmoodi Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran Soude Shahsavari Soude Shahsavari Department of Biostatistics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Nasibeh Sharifi Nasibeh Sharifi Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/semj43958 Optimizing the Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Department Using Queuing Theory and Simulation Optimizing the Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Department Using Queuing Theory and Simulation research-article research-article Conclusions

In the 4th scenario, the department and its personnel’s productivity improved and the patients’ waiting time for turn-taking until admission was eliminated by adding an MRI machine and an MRI technologist. Therefore, the implementation of this scenario is proposed, after performing cost-benefit analyses.

Results

The current study results showed that the highest average of patients’ waiting time was related to turn-taking until admission (56 days) while the average time spent from admission to leaving the studied MRI department was 124 minutes. The department productivity on average was 52.5% indicating the high system capacity, which had not been used. There was dramatically reduced waiting time and increased required services in the 4th scenario indicating that the waiting time could be significantly reduced by making small changes in the human resources (changes in the working hours and the number of personnel) and the number of machines (adding an MRI machine).

Methods

It was an applied and cross-sectional study conducted in 2015 in the MRI department of a military hospital affiliated to Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in day and night shifts in which the referral rate and the time spent in different workstations were recorded for a sample of 264 patients by Quota Sampling. After the initial evaluation of data using Excel 2013, arrival time of patients and the average time of service delivery, associated with the queuing network, in both shifts were calculated. Then, to provide practical solutions, various scenarios were modeled using Arena14.5 and the results were compared.

Background

The diagnostic services such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) require advanced and costly technologies; and making the right managerial decisions to reduce patients’ waiting time and increase employees’ productivity in providing such services is essential.

Objectives

The current study aims at optimizing the performance of the mentioned MRI department using queuing theory and simulation to increase its productivity and patients’ satisfaction.

Conclusions

In the 4th scenario, the department and its personnel’s productivity improved and the patients’ waiting time for turn-taking until admission was eliminated by adding an MRI machine and an MRI technologist. Therefore, the implementation of this scenario is proposed, after performing cost-benefit analyses.

Results

The current study results showed that the highest average of patients’ waiting time was related to turn-taking until admission (56 days) while the average time spent from admission to leaving the studied MRI department was 124 minutes. The department productivity on average was 52.5% indicating the high system capacity, which had not been used. There was dramatically reduced waiting time and increased required services in the 4th scenario indicating that the waiting time could be significantly reduced by making small changes in the human resources (changes in the working hours and the number of personnel) and the number of machines (adding an MRI machine).

Methods

It was an applied and cross-sectional study conducted in 2015 in the MRI department of a military hospital affiliated to Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in day and night shifts in which the referral rate and the time spent in different workstations were recorded for a sample of 264 patients by Quota Sampling. After the initial evaluation of data using Excel 2013, arrival time of patients and the average time of service delivery, associated with the queuing network, in both shifts were calculated. Then, to provide practical solutions, various scenarios were modeled using Arena14.5 and the results were compared.

Background

The diagnostic services such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) require advanced and costly technologies; and making the right managerial decisions to reduce patients’ waiting time and increase employees’ productivity in providing such services is essential.

Objectives

The current study aims at optimizing the performance of the mentioned MRI department using queuing theory and simulation to increase its productivity and patients’ satisfaction.

Queuing Theory;Simulation;MRI Department;Hospital;Optimization Queuing Theory;Simulation;MRI Department;Hospital;Optimization http://www.emedicalj.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=43958 Mohammadkarim Bahadori Mohammadkarim Bahadori Health Management Research Centre, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Radiology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Management Research Centre, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Radiology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ehsan Teymourzadeh Ehsan Teymourzadeh Health Management Research Centre, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Health Management Research Centre, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Seyed Hadi Hosseini Seyed Hadi Hosseini Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128786844 Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128786844 Ramin Ravangard Ramin Ravangard School of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran School of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/semj40689 Dominant Strategies of Patient Visiting in Selected Intensive Care Units in Iran Dominant Strategies of Patient Visiting in Selected Intensive Care Units in Iran research-article research-article Results

Three categories emerged, including “visual visiting”, “mini visiting” and “individualized visiting”, which are employed with respect to the conditions of the ward and patients, staff approaches and policies adopted at the hospital level.

Background

Positive outcomes of visiting have been supported in many studies. In Iran, the results of studies showed the implementation of restricted visiting policies in most intensive care units (ICUs). However, medical staff of ICUs, especially nurses claimed to address the needs of patients and their families.

Objectives

This study aimed to explain the strategies employed in the context of restricted policies to address the needs of patients and their relatives.

Methods

A descriptive qualitative study with an approach of thematic analysis was used. Ten nurses, six head nurses, and two physicians participated in the research through purposeful sampling. Most of the data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews, but observation and related document revision were also used. The method introduced by Braun and Clarke (2006) was used to analyze the data.

Conclusions

The dominant strategies of visiting in selected ICUs in Iran were explained. It seems that given all the situations including special cultural traits of Iranian people, individualized visiting is the most suitable strategy to bring about positive impacts of visiting on the process of physical and mental recovery of ICU patients while it is necessary that decisions be made separately in each ward and for each patient.

Results

Three categories emerged, including “visual visiting”, “mini visiting” and “individualized visiting”, which are employed with respect to the conditions of the ward and patients, staff approaches and policies adopted at the hospital level.

Background

Positive outcomes of visiting have been supported in many studies. In Iran, the results of studies showed the implementation of restricted visiting policies in most intensive care units (ICUs). However, medical staff of ICUs, especially nurses claimed to address the needs of patients and their families.

Objectives

This study aimed to explain the strategies employed in the context of restricted policies to address the needs of patients and their relatives.

Methods

A descriptive qualitative study with an approach of thematic analysis was used. Ten nurses, six head nurses, and two physicians participated in the research through purposeful sampling. Most of the data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews, but observation and related document revision were also used. The method introduced by Braun and Clarke (2006) was used to analyze the data.

Conclusions

The dominant strategies of visiting in selected ICUs in Iran were explained. It seems that given all the situations including special cultural traits of Iranian people, individualized visiting is the most suitable strategy to bring about positive impacts of visiting on the process of physical and mental recovery of ICU patients while it is necessary that decisions be made separately in each ward and for each patient.

Intensive Care Unit;Iran;Nursing;Visiting;Patient Visitors Intensive Care Unit;Iran;Nursing;Visiting;Patient Visitors http://www.emedicalj.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=40689 Zahra Tayebi Zahra Tayebi Assistant Professor, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran Assistant Professor, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran Nahid Dehghan Nayeri Nahid Dehghan Nayeri Professor, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Professor, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Leili Borimnejad Leili Borimnejad Associate Professor, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Associate Professor, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
en 10.17795/semj45358 Specific Single Chain Antibodies Against A Neuronal Growth Inhibitor Receptor, Nogo Receptor 1: Promising New Antibodies for the Immunotherapy of Multiple Sclerosis Specific Single Chain Antibodies Against A Neuronal Growth Inhibitor Receptor, Nogo Receptor 1: Promising New Antibodies for the Immunotherapy of Multiple Sclerosis research-article research-article Conclusions

Using monoclonal antibody in the case of targeted therapy against NgR1 prevents Nogo-A, myelin associated glycoprotein, and oligodendrocyte from binding to Ngr1 and disturbs demyelination. Results demonstrated the selection of two specific scFvs against NgR1 which reacted with the antigen significantly. These specific, small human antibodies can be considered as blockings for Multiple Sclerosis to interfere with the axonal growth inhibition in NgR1-expressing neurons. Further studies should be conducted to find the effects of these antibodies in vitro and in vivo.

Results

Two specific clones with the frequencies of 55% and 45% were detached. Positive ELISA were detected with the corresponding epitope for clones, but for negative controls no positive reaction took place. The corresponding peptide-coated wells for scFv 1 and scFv 2 absorbed 0.81 and 0.62, respectively, which were significantly higher than the absorbance of the wells without any peptide, ie, 0.10 and 0.14, respectively.

Background

The Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1) is a myelin inhibitory neuronal receptor in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and is a crucial key to axonal growth inhibition. The NgR1 inhibition role has been proved by monoclonal antibodies in many researches. Human single chain antibodies are composed of VH-linker-VL. They are tiny but powerful antibodies which have remarkable effects on treatments.

Objectives

Producing specific single-chain antibodies of human against immune-dominant epitope of NgR1 and the evaluation of their reactivity against the epitope is the main goal of this study.

Methods

An immunodominant epitope of NgR1 was designed using bioinformatics methods. The peptide was applied to select specific single chain antibodies using a phage antibody display library of scFv (single chain Fragment variable) and panning process. The selected clones were PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) amplified and DNA fingerprinted, to reveal the common patterns. Phage ELISA was performed to evaluate the reactivity of the selected scFvs.

Conclusions

Using monoclonal antibody in the case of targeted therapy against NgR1 prevents Nogo-A, myelin associated glycoprotein, and oligodendrocyte from binding to Ngr1 and disturbs demyelination. Results demonstrated the selection of two specific scFvs against NgR1 which reacted with the antigen significantly. These specific, small human antibodies can be considered as blockings for Multiple Sclerosis to interfere with the axonal growth inhibition in NgR1-expressing neurons. Further studies should be conducted to find the effects of these antibodies in vitro and in vivo.

Results

Two specific clones with the frequencies of 55% and 45% were detached. Positive ELISA were detected with the corresponding epitope for clones, but for negative controls no positive reaction took place. The corresponding peptide-coated wells for scFv 1 and scFv 2 absorbed 0.81 and 0.62, respectively, which were significantly higher than the absorbance of the wells without any peptide, ie, 0.10 and 0.14, respectively.

Background

The Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1) is a myelin inhibitory neuronal receptor in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and is a crucial key to axonal growth inhibition. The NgR1 inhibition role has been proved by monoclonal antibodies in many researches. Human single chain antibodies are composed of VH-linker-VL. They are tiny but powerful antibodies which have remarkable effects on treatments.

Objectives

Producing specific single-chain antibodies of human against immune-dominant epitope of NgR1 and the evaluation of their reactivity against the epitope is the main goal of this study.

Methods

An immunodominant epitope of NgR1 was designed using bioinformatics methods. The peptide was applied to select specific single chain antibodies using a phage antibody display library of scFv (single chain Fragment variable) and panning process. The selected clones were PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) amplified and DNA fingerprinted, to reveal the common patterns. Phage ELISA was performed to evaluate the reactivity of the selected scFvs.

NgR1;scFv Antibodies;Multiple Sclerosis Immunotherapy NgR1;scFv Antibodies;Multiple Sclerosis Immunotherapy http://www.emedicalj.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=45358 Bahareh Ehsaei Bahareh Ehsaei Recombinant Antibody Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Recombinant Antibody Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Foroogh Nejatollahi Foroogh Nejatollahi Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Recombinant Antibody Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Recombinant Antibody Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Mozafar Mohammadi Mozafar Mohammadi School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran